Nowadays, wireless networks or WiFi has become one of the most popular ways for people to access the Internet at home or offices. Even the authorities of hotels, restaurants and etc provide WiFi connectivity to their customers for free.
However, if many people use WiFi connection simultaneously, then there is a chance to get a huge drop in the performance of internet connectivity. The performance of the wireless connection depends on two bands one is 2.4 and the other is 5 GHz.
If you compare the performances between 2.4 and 5 GHz bands then the latter one is faster. There are various channels for the 5 GHz band using which you can access the internet at a much fast rate. But, if there is congestion in that channel then the speed of the internet may get disrupted. Here, you will get the best channel for 5GHz band.
Various 5GHz sub-bands for the WiFi
As we know that the old 2.4 GHz band has only three channels, whereas the other band i.e 5GHz has more than twenty channels. Those 20 channels of the 5GHz band are split into four sub-bands which can be used by various types of people. Those four sub-bands are here as follows.
The UNII:1 sub-band has the lowest four channels within the 5GHz band, which starts from the bottom. Those four channels of this sub-band are 36, 40, 44, 48. The frequency range that the sub-band covers is from 5150 to 5250 MHz.
Many devices work with any one of the four channels. Basically, the four channels are used only for domestic purposes, so one can access them free of cost. One of the major drawbacks of these channels is that many people use this, so it has huge traffic
This is another sub-band of the 5GHz band which has four channels. Those four channels are as follows – 52, 56, 60, 64. The bandwidth range that the channels of this sub-band covers are from 5250 and 5350 MHz. There is another reference for this range which is ‘UNII-2A’.
The next range that is in between 5350 to 5470 MHz is referred to as UNII-2B. There is a third range for this sub-band which sits between 5470 to 5725 MHz and it is called UNII-2 Extended or UNII-2C. The channels that the UNII-2C has are from 100 to 140.
To use this range the router should have the following features like “Transmit Power Control” and “Dynamic Frequency Selection”. These two features make sure that there is no interference with military devices and weather stations.
The range of the UNII-Upper or UNII-3 is from 5725 to 5850 MHz. The channels that this sub-band contains is as follows-149,153, 157, 161, 165. Since the frequency range of this sub-band overlaps with the one that is available for the ISM band i.e Industrial, Scientific, and Medical, therefore it can be said as ‘UNII-3/ISM’ range.
Out of all the four sub-bands of the 5GHz band, the UNII-4 is the highest one. Another name for this sub-band is DSRC/ITS. The lowest channel within this sub-band is 165. All the channels within this sub-band are present for the DRSC and licensed radio amateurs. The channels within this sub-band cannot be used by anyone.
What are the considerations for the best channel for WiFi 5GHz?
Here, you will get the considerations to choose the best channels for the 5GHz band.
The location is one of the most important aspects to consider, in order to select the best channel for the 5GHz band. Almost, every country utilizes the UNII: 1 sub-band for general internet usage. However, in the US, one can use channels from both of the UNII: 2 and UNII: 3 sub-bands, but there is some restrictions. Now, if you use any channel from the UNII: 3 sub-band, then chances are that there might be some kind of interference from medical or military equipment.
In the WiFi connection, the greatest problem that one faces come from the interferences from other wireless networks or some electrical appliances. Interferences in the WiFi signal can cause the internet to slow down severely, thus hampering your work.
The sub-bands UNII: 2 Extended and UNII: 2 contains the interference level that is lowest among all the others. The total range of channels that these two sub-bands have is from 52 till 140. The devices that use the UNII: 1 sub-band does not have the capability to make signals that can cause any big interference, thus in the interference table their rank is low.
The channels within the sub-band UNII: 3 has a significant amount of interference issue. As the channels within this sub-band are utilized by the equipment from medical, military and weather stations.
Dynamic Frequency Selection
The Dynamic Frequency Selection or DFS is a feature that hears for any other radars within the channels of both UNII:2 or UNII: 2E. If there are no radars in those channels from UNII: 2 or UNII: 2 Extended, then you can use a channel. The scanning time to search for any radar within a channel is thirty seconds.
The traffic of Channels
In order to get internet connectivity, you must connect to the channel with less user traffic. This action will allow you to get a pretty good performance from the internet. However, if the channel with less traffic has strong interference from other devices, then the best choice for you is to connect to a channel with more traffic, but very nominal interference. This is the reason why most of the users go with the UNII: 1 sub-band to access the internet.
Final verdict for the best wifi channel for 5GHz
The final conclusion after going through all considerations in the previous section, you must avail of a channel that has low traffic and less interference. This channel is present within the UNII: 1 sub-band within the 5GHz band.
However, if you move above the UNII: 1 sub-band then there will be a requirement of TPC and the DFS on the router.